Enactment of Block Chain under Supply Chain Management

A Study on Seafood Companies in Pakistan





Block Chain, Supply Chain Management, Seafood Companies


This research paper has been created to examine the potential benefits of block chain applications associated with hyper ledger under the key functions that are performed within the supply chain management of seafood companies in Pakistan. For this purpose, the research has specifically focused on determining how block chain hyper ledger can assist seafood companies in Pakistan to enhance their key supply chain functions associated with tracking and tracing of the seafood products, as well as in maintaining transparency under the entire supply chain. To conduct this study, primary data related to the key variables of this research was collected through a survey, under which a Likert-scale questionnaire was administered to obtain the information from the respondents. This primary data was collected from 36 respondents who were working on various positions within the supply chain department of different food companies. The findings of this research revealed that block chain hyper ledger was impacting the track and trace procedures, as well as the transparency of the supply chain management of seafood companies positively at 95 percent confidence interval. These findings further indicated that even though the use and implementation of technologies or applications of block chain are still in their infancy and underutilized within Pakistan, block chain technology has a significant potential to offer transparent, optimal, and secure characteristics related to traceability under the important supply chain functions that are performed by seafood companies. Furthermore, it was also inferred from the findings of this research that the technology of block chain can offer a comprehensive framework in helping seafood organizations to save their costs and enhance their efficiency while producing, managing and delivering seafood products to the target customer successfully.

Author Biography

Shahzaib Hussain, Antalya Bilim University,Turkey

Research Scholar
Antalya Bilim University


Aliyu, A. A., Bello, M. U., Kasim, R., & Martin, D. (2014). Positivist and non-positivist paradigm in social science research: Conflicting paradigms or perfect partners. J. Mgmt. & Sustainability, 4, 79.

Almada-Lobo, F. (2015). The Industry 4.0 revolution and the future of Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). Journal of innovation management, 3(4), 16-21.

Ampel, B., Patton, M., & Chen, H. (2019, July). Performance Modeling of Hyperledger Sawtooth Blockchain. In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI) (pp. 59-61). IEEE.

Androulaki, E., Cachin, C., De Caro, A., Kind, A., & Osborne, M. (2017, January). Cryptography and protocols in hyperledger fabric. In Real-World Cryptography Conference.

Awwad, M., Kalluru, S. R., Airpulli, V. K., Madhubala Santosh Zambre, A. M., & Jain, P. (2018). Blockchain Technology for Efficient Management of Supply Chain. International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (pp. 27-29). Washington DC: The State University of New York.

Badzar, A. (2016). Blockchain for securing sustainable transport contracts and supply chain transparency. Helsingborg, Sweden.

Bernard, H. R. (2017). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Rowman & Littlefield.

Bhandari, B. (2018). Supply Chain Management, Blockchains and Smart Contracts.

Blatter, J., & Haverland, M. (2012). Designing case studies: Explanatory approaches in small-N research. Palgrave Macmillan.

Bonett, D. G., & Wright, T. A. (2015). Cronbach's alpha reliability: Interval estimation, hypothesis testing, and sample size planning. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 3-15.

Brook, R. J. (2018). Applied regression analysis and experimental design. Routledge.

Caro, M. P., Ali, M. S., Vecchio, M., & Giaffreda, R. (2018, May). Blockchain-based traceability in Agri-Food supply chain management: A practical implementation. In 2018 IoT Vertical and Topical Summit on Agriculture-Tuscany (IOT Tuscany) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2014). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Psychology Press.

Cook, B., & Zealand, W. N. (2018). Blockchain: Transforming the seafood supply chain. World Wide Fund for Nature.

Croasmun, J. T., & Ostrom, L. (2011). Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences. Journal of Adult Education, 40(1), 19-22.

Crosby, M., Pattanayak, P., Verma, S., & Kalyanaraman, V. (2016). Blockchain technology: Beyond bitcoin. Applied Innovation, 2(6-10), 71.

Deloitte; DNV GL. (2019). Blockchain in the seafood industry: Increasing transparency and efficiency in global seafood supply chains. New York: Deloitte.

Denham, F. C., Howieson, J. R., Solah, V. A., & Biswas, W. K. (2015). Environmental supply chain management in the seafood industry: past, present and future approaches. Journal of cleaner production, 90, 82-90.

Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), 1-4.

Fox, M., Mitchell, M., Dean, M., Elliott, C., & Campbell, K. (2018). The seafood supply chain from a fraudulent perspective. Food Security, 10(4), 939-963.

Francisco, K., & Swanson, D. (2018). The supply chain has no clothes: Technology adoption of blockchain for supply chain transparency. Logistics, 2(1), 2.

Galvez, J. F., Mejuto, J. C., & Simal-Gandara, J. (2018). Future challenges on the use of blockchain for food traceability analysis. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 107, 222-232.

Gaur, N., Desrosiers, L., Ramakrishna, V., Novotny, P., Baset, S. A., & O'Dowd, A. (2018). Hands-On Blockchain with Hyperledger: Building decentralized applications with Hyperledger Fabric and Composer. Packt Publishing Ltd.

Holmberg, A., & Åquist, R. (2018). Blockchain technology in food supply chains: A case study of the possibilities and challenges with an implementation of a blockchain technology supported framework for traceability.

Hughes, J. A., & Sharrock, W. W. (2016). The philosophy of social research. Routledge.

Irshad, A. (2017, February 13). Over exploitation of marine fisheries resource. Retrieved from Dawn: https://epaper.dawn.com/DetailImage.php?StoryImage=13_02_2017_604_001

Korpela, K., Hallikas, J., & Dahlberg, T. (2017, January). Digital supply chain transformation toward blockchain integration. In proceedings of the 50th Hawaii international conference on system sciences.

Kartika, S. (2014). A study on Exports of Fish and Fish products and their Role in Economic Growth of Pakistan. International Journal of Marine Science, 4(64).

Laghari, M. Y. (2018). Aquaculture in Pakistan: Challenges and opportunities. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6(2), 56-59.

Lin, J., Shen, Z., Zhang, A., & Chai, Y. (2018, July). Blockchain and iot based food traceability for smart agriculture. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Crowd Science and Engineering (p. 3). ACM.

Mathisen, M. (2018). The Application of Blockchain Technology in Norwegian Fish Supply Chains-A Case Study (Master's thesis, NTNU).

Mkansi, M., & Acheampong, E. A. (2012). Research philosophy debates and classifications: students’ dilemma. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 10(2), 132-140.

Nasir, Q., Qasse, I. A., Abu Talib, M., & Nassif, A. B. (2018). Performance analysis of hyperledger fabric platforms. Security and Communication Networks, 2018.

Nazira, K., Yongtong, M., Kalhoro, M. A., Memon, K. H., Mohsin, M., & Kartika, S. (2015). A preliminary study on fisheries economy of Pakistan: plan of actions for fisheries management in Pakistan. Canadian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(1), 7-17.

Nene, S., Westerlund, M., Leminen, S., & Rajahonka, M. (2019). Benefits of Blockchain-based Traceability in Food Supply Chains. In ISPIM Conference Proceedings (pp. 1-12). The International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM).

Norton, T., Beier, J., Shields, L., Househam, A., Bombis, E., & Liew, D. (2014). A guide to traceability: A practical approach to advance sustainability in global supply chains. United Nations Global Compact Office: New York, NY, USA.

Olson, K., Bowman, M., Mitchell, J., Amundson, S., Middleton, D., & Montgomery, C. (2018). Sawtooth: An Introduction. The Linux Foundation, Jan.

Pfohl, H. C., Yahsi, B., & Kurnaz, T. (2015). The impact of Industry 4.0 on the Supply Chain. Innovation and Strategies for Logistics and Supply Chain; RePEc: Hamburg, Germany, 31-58.

Saberi, S., Kouhizadeh, M., Sarkis, J., & Shen, L. (2019). Blockchain technology and its relationships to sustainable supply chain management. International Journal of Production Research, 57(7), 2117-2135.

Scotland, J. (2012). Exploring the philosophical underpinnings of research: Relating ontology and epistemology to the methodology and methods of the scientific, interpretive, and critical research paradigms. English language teaching, 5(9), 9-16.

Shah, S. (2018, September 1). Pakistan fish exports up 27.94pc, netting $451.026 million in FY18. Retrieved from The News: https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/362151-pakistan-fish-exports-up-27-94pc-netting-451-026-million-in-fy18

Shi, Z., Zhou, H., Hu, Y., Jayachander, S., de Laat, C., & Zhao, Z. (2019, June). Operating Permissioned Blockchain in Clouds: A Performance Study of Hyperledger Sawtooth. In 2019 18th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing (ISPDC) (pp. 50-57). IEEE.

Sripathi, L. (2019). Adoption of Blockchain technology in food supply chain management.

Syler, R., & Steelman, Z. (2018). Navigating the Blockchain: Industry Partnerships, Curriculum Integration, and a Hands-On Look Using Hyperledger.

Tama, B. A., Kweka, B. J., Park, Y., & Rhee, K. H. (2017, August). A critical review of blockchain and its current applications. In 2017 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (ICECOS) (pp. 109-113). IEEE.

Thakkar, P., Nathan, S., & Viswanathan, B. (2018, September). Performance benchmarking and optimizing hyperledger fabric blockchain platform. In 2018 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS) (pp. 264-276). IEEE.

The Linux Foundation Projects. (2019). About Hyperledger. Retrieved from Hyperledger: https://www.hyperledger.org/about

Tian, F. (2017, June). A supply chain traceability system for food safety based on HACCP, blockchain & Internet of things. In 2017 International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Tribis, Y., El Bouchti, A., & Bouayad, H. (2018). Supply chain management based on Blockchain: A systematic mapping study. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 200, p. 00020). EDP Sciences.

Tse, D., Zhang, B., Yang, Y., Cheng, C., & Mu, H. (2017, December). Blockchain application in food supply information security. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM) (pp. 1357-1361). IEEE.

Underwood, S. (2016). Blockchain beyond bitcoin. Communications of the ACM, 59(11), 15-17.

Valenta, M., & Sandner, P. (2017). Comparison of ethereum, hyperledger fabric and corda. [ebook] Frankfurt School, Blockchain Center.

Wang, Q., Zhu, X., Ni, Y., Gu, L., & Zhu, H. (2019). Blockchain for the IoT and industrial IoT: A review. Internet of Things, 100081.



How to Cite

Hussain, S. . (2020). Enactment of Block Chain under Supply Chain Management: A Study on Seafood Companies in Pakistan. Karachi University Business Research Journal, 1(1), 11-24. https://doi.org/10.46568/kubrj.v1i1.8